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Material Science

From the Stone Age commencing 3.5 Million years ago, through the Bronze Age (6500 BC), the Iron Age (1000 BC) and up to the industrial revolutions of the 19th and 20th centuries, the development of advanced materials and industrial processes has had a fundamental impact on society.

Modern industrial organizations have three principal goals that are; cost effectiveness, better-designed products of higher performance and most importantly higher competitiveness. The achievement of these goals is dependent on three interrelated factors, namely:

The development of advanced materials
The development of new manufacturing processes
The development of new testing methods

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All aspects of modern technology relate in some ways to materials. From the simplest plastic in a child's toy to the most advanced composite in the space program, materials must be carefully developed and engineered to meet their specific applications. One hundred years ago when designers made their materials selections they had available iron and limited varieties of steels, and other metals, stone, glass, cements and concrete, celluloid, leather and natural composite - wood. Today, the array of material choices available to designers is much vaster and ever growing.

Modern engineering sciences, chemistry and physics require materials to be developed, tailored and optimized to suit specific products or systems. The rapid progress in the development of materials has entered an era of designed materials. The combination of sophisticated and accurate processing equipment and fundamental understanding of materials enable synthesis of materials especially created to have properties required by the design engineer. Moreover, recent developments in material science and engineering have not only made it evident that the traditional division to Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, etc. is becoming obsolete, but also that the ties of Physics, Chemistry, Process and Engineering are becoming stronger than ever.

Generally called "advanced materials" these materials include high performance composite, fine ceramics, inter-metallic alloys, highly doped glasses and semiconductors and advanced polymers.
The development of multi-functional and adaptable materials, new technologies and finding ways to reduce energy and material inputs now dictate the efforts and goals of those engaged in research into advanced materials.

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The unique properties of advanced materials are the result of the sophisticated microstructure that is designed and built into the materials.

The costs involved in the development of advanced materials require and call for improved and more intelligent processing of such materials in the framework of product manufacturing mainly in order to reduce the rejection rates which are connected to such manufacturing. Intelligent processing is also required for improvement of the overall qualification of the products manufactured.

Since intelligent processing of materials involves building in quality rather than attempting to obtain it by inspection, there will also be a reduction in the post-manufacturing inspection and rejection expenses.

Further targets and advantages of intelligent processing are achievement of flexibility in the manufacturing process of different materials and the shortening of the substantial lead-time sometimes required in order to bring advanced materials from their development stage to mass production.
The field of Intelligent Processing includes the following:

Casting, Forming, Forging, Sintering, Heat Treatments
Plating, Coating, Painting, etching, printing
Joining, Welding, Brazing, Soldering
Synthesis, Reactions, Mixing
C.V.D., P.V.D., Plasma, Lithography
Crystal Growth, Refining, Doping
Recycling of Materials

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Industrial chemicals defined as novel synthesis of polymers, intermediates and active substances (biologically) resulting in either new patentable matters per se, or novel production processes. The results being demonstrated by cheaper routes better yields, and other potential advantages, whereby the process can be well protected and traced. Along with the above mentioned we will be looking at new compounds, or formulations of industrial chemicals for metal treating, paints and varnishes, inks, bonding and sealing, agricultural chemicals, detergents, food additives and veterinary products. In all these projects the key issues will be novelty, better performance than the prior art, and both use and composition patentability.

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This field composes the development of novel micro-electronics circuits, in miniaturized forms using biochemical processes. Starting from long polymeric or DNA chains, to which metallic molecules are attached by chemical processes, thus forming ultra fine electrically conductive threads, switches, capacitors etc.

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Metals and Alloys
(such as: Iron and Steels, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys, Nickel and Nickel Alloys, Zinc and Zinc Alloys, Uranium and Uranium Alloys, Indium and Bismuth, Neodymium, Promethium, etc.)
(such as Mechanical and Electrical Ceramics, Ceramic Glasses, Superabrasives and Ultra hard Tool Materials (SiAlON, Diamond, Cemented Carbides and Nitrides, Cermets and Metal-Ceramic Compounds, Carbon and Graphites, Ceramic Fibers and Foams, etc.)
(such as Industrial Glasses, Optical Glasses, Special Property and Doped Glasses, etc.)
Polymers and Plastic Materials
(such as Hydrocarbon Thermoplastic Polymers, Nonhydrocarbon Carbon-Chain Thermoplastic Polymers, Hetrochain Thermoplastic Polymers, etc.)
(such as: Germanium and Germanium Compounds, Gallium and Gallium Compounds, etc.)
Special-Purpose Materials
(such as: Magnetically Soft Materials, Permanent Magnet Materials, Metallic Glasses and Amorphous Metals, etc.)
Superconducting Materials
(such as: Niobium-Titanium Superconductors, A15 (Cubic Crystal A3B) Superconductors, Ternary Molybdenum Chlcogenides (Chevral Phases), etc.)
(such as: Epoxy-Matrix Composites, Thermoset-Matrix Composites, Styrenic-Matrix Composites, Metal-Matrix Composites etc.)
(Such as metals, ceramics, polymers and composites) for electronics, medical & health care and additives for e-Inks, heat sinks, fuel, oil etc.
Fibers, Felts, Wood and Paper
(such as: Fibers - Organic, Inorganic, Vulcanized, Wool Felts, Synthetic Fiber Pad Felts, etc.)
Adhesives and Sealants
(such as: Adhesives: Epoxies, Phenolics, Urethanes, Anaerobics, Acrylics, Cyanoacrylates, Silicones, Polysulfides, Elastomeric Adhesives. Advanced Polymeric Adhesive Systems: Polyamides, etc.)
Finishes and Coatings
(such as: Organic Coatings, Chemical Conversion and Immersion Coatings, Electrodeposited Coatings, etc.). Lubricants (such as: Liquid Lubricants, Solid Lubricants, Greases, etc.)

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Advanced materials and industrial processes have an impact on future technologies and on the competition between industrial countries. Their development opens a significant number of opportunities for new and more effective industries. Thus, most technologically developed nations have identified advanced materials and novel industrial processes with biotechnology and information technology as the three principle emerging technologies for the next several decades. Consequently, economic forecasts identify substantial markets for those advanced materials and innovative industrial processes.

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